Posts Tagged ‘Kettlebell training’

How To Get The Most Out of Your Training

May 15, 2011 4 comments

Benji Hill @ 1st Primal Power Meet in Hailey, ID, HAF April 2011

I recently read an article from that inspired me to post on this subject.  Exercise is always supposed to be beneficial right?  Well in most cases, yes, most of us actually do need more exercise & it’s health benefits are not unlike a wonder drug.  However, it seems that the growing trend these days is marketing high intensity, all out exercise all the time.  As you’ll see as I continue, high intensity exercise is great and it serves its purpose… just not every time you exercise.

More isn’t necessarily better:

Somewhere along the way, we got it in our heads that more is better, and in order to get anywhere we have to go all out, all the time and if the results aren’t instant then we’ve failed.  You’ve heard the sayings… “go big or go home”, “no pain, no gain” or even, the latest I recently heard, “if you aren’t puking or on the verge of it, then you’re not working hard enough”… right, well not if I can help it.  I would like to think that I could actually enjoy the process and get some good results without feeling miserable the whole time or like a failure because I couldn’t quite push it hard enough to do a million plus one reps as fast as the next guy!  This is supposed to be fun right?


Without proper recovery, you won’t get anywhere.  You may notice that you have either experienced this before.  Either you aren’t sleeping, you are too stressed or you are simply overtraining.  You may notice that your body feels worse, you are constantly dealing with injuries and illness, you’re groggy and fatigued all the time and you may even be holding on to that abdominal weight some refer to as “the spare tire” or “muffin top” no matter how many crunches you do.  And… what do you do?  More exercise… to push through it.  And what do you get?  A stubborn extra layer of fat and adrenal fatigue.

Your recovery time is absolutely crucial, it is the period of time where your body reaps all the benefits of your exercise and training regimen.  During exercise, your muscles are strained and stressed and broken down… it’s during your recovery where you are actually maximizing on your muscle growth, fat loss and increases in strength.   Recovery accounts for a number of things, including the actual rest (sleep) you are getting; both quality and quantity, your nutrition as well as your lifestyle and relaxation levels.  Sometimes it’s really “less is more”, but it’s finding the balance that always seems to be tricky.

Total Training Load:

In order to understand how much we individually need to train to create just the right balance of training vs. rest and recovery; it is important to understand Total Training Load (TTL).  This is the amount of training “strain” on the body over time.  The beauty of TTL, is that it can be manipulated to suit your own individual needs from workout to workout & day-to-day.  Here are some of the things you can change within your workout regimen; whether you are running, spinning, swinging kettlebells or strength training with free weights.

  • Number of repetitions
  • The amount of resistance or weight
  • Length of workout sets
  • The speed
  • Length of resting intervals

Depending on what you want out of your workout for that day, you can mix it up with this short list of things and get exactly what you need.  The thing you want to remember is that if you overdo it (and you will overdo it from time to time), then you are essentially going backwards and breaking the body down, taxing the nervous system and will likely feel worse, experience more injuries, illnesses and eventually burnout.

It’s all about listening to and understanding your own body.  For most of us, this may not be as easy as it sounds.  It’s easy to say “listen to your body, and rest when you need it”, but how many of us actually know how to listen to our bodies?  If we did, then I likely wouldn’t have a job.

Cycling Intensity:

In general you should cycle the intensity of your workouts between easy, moderate & hard.  So how do you know what your intensity is and how often do you cycle through each?  How do you know when you are actually participating in an easy workout as opposed to a moderate or hard one?  The answer is relatively easy, how much can you talk during the actual workout.

  • Easy:  According to experts an easy workout is one in which you would be able to have a full conversation, speaking full sentences while working between 50 & 75% of your maximum.  This would fall into the category of low-level aerobic activity below.  In general you should be doing 2 easy workouts per each 1 hard workout.
  • Moderate:  This falls right around the 75% mark.  This is where most people camp out.  You are able to speak words but not engage in a full conversation or speak in full sentences.  Your moderate workouts basically fill in the blanks as far as timing and scheduling workouts go.
  • Hard:  This is where you can no longer talk at all, you’re likely reaching your VO2 max.  These workouts are great to supercharge.  For a good balance and to achieve gains in whatever your goals are, 1-2 hard workouts a week, separated by 2 days (at least) is a good baseline to go off.

Types of training:

There are tons and tons of different training styles out there today… one could never get bored researching them… trust me, I’ve spent hours on the computer getting lost in blogs, YouTube videos and research studies on exercise and training.  Your body is adaptable, it’s one of the things that makes us so resilient.  As you can adapt to different climates, situations and even people, you will adapt to exercise if it’s not varied.   Your body will figure out the most efficient way to preserve energy and nutritional stores, it’s a survival mechanism rooted in our DNA; this is both a blessing and a curse.  The blessing is that we are able to adapt to our surroundings and the curse; your body will hold onto fat like your life depends on it, because at one point, it did.  Hence, the plateau.  I know you’ve all experienced this at some point, you’ve gotten great gains at the beginning (built muscle mass, lost some body fat, gotten stronger and felt better) but then it just stops and no matter what you do… nothing changes and you may even notice you do go backwards.  One of the worst things you could do is continue doing exactly what you’re doing, exactly how you’re doing it.  Mostly people will exercise at about 75% of their max all the time, doing the exact same exercise (a good example is runners).  Switch it up people!  Go harder, go easier… refer to the list above and change-up your workout routine.  What you need is to recharge your system (nervous and cardiovascular) in a different way and shock the body into having to recalibrate and adapt to a new set of criteria.  Otherwise, you may just be stuck on that plateau whether you like it or not.  In addition to the different ways in which you can change-up your intensity and total training load above, the following is just a quick and short list of options to add in to your training regimen.

  • High Intensity Interval Training (HIIT) – Just like it sounds, HIIT is a high intensity short burst of exercise.  Much like sprinting, and sometimes referred to as sprint interval training.  In other words if you are feeling pretty confident with your fitness level and try doing some HIIT, prepare to be humbled.  Sprinting would definitely fall into the category of HARD workouts.  HIIT is not limited to sprinting however, you can use this concept with anything else… jumping, bounding, push ups, weights, spinning… you name it.  The key with these, is they are usually short in duration, lasting anywhere from 9-20 minutes for your entire workout.  The original protocol for HIIT training follows a 2:1 ratio; meaning for every 2 (units) of exercise, you recover for 1.  This may sound familiar…
    • Tabata – HIIT that is measured by doing intense bouts of exercise for 20 seconds, followed by 10 seconds of rest.  This is great for sprinting and we use it a lot at the Gym with Kettlebells, ropes, boxes and other functional training modalities.
  • Neural Charging –  Still following a similar concept but is based on the idea that you can train more frequently without overtraining.  In general, neural charging uses explosive movements for short amounts of time (stopping before you experience any muscle fatigue, a concept many of us are not used to).  An example of this is doing explosive push ups.  Pushing up off the ground or a box as fast and as explosively as you can for 1 – 5 reps (until you feel you may lose power) and taking out the eccentric part of the movement (the slow lowering of your body back to the floor).  For a more in-depth description, check out Christian Thibadeau’s articles on Neural charging here.
  • The benefits of all the above have been shown to increase your body’s ability to burn fat, improve insulin sensitivity, as well as increase your speed, agility and athleticism.
  • Low-Level Aerobic Activity – Basically anything you do where you can talk with a friend at the same time.  For some workouts, you may even count these as a gym workout, there are plenty of times I’ve been taking it easy at the gym, able to have a full conversation with somebody while I’m lightly swinging a kettlebell.  However, more commonly these workouts are walks, hikes, biking into town, other daily activities outdoors or even indoors.  You could probably count vacuuming as a low-level aerobic activity if you wanted.

Stress and your body:

Stress is a huge part of our lives, some experts say it’s the cause of 90% of disease, (though one could argue it may be high fructose corn syrup and stress causes about 99% of disease)!  Your body can’t differentiate between physical stress and all the other mental and emotional stressors that you experience in a day.  When we work out, our physical bodies are stressed in that we are putting strain on the muscles, the cardiovascular system & the nervous system.  When we are emotionally stressed, our bodies are dealing with the windfall of adrenaline and cortisol spikes and valleys elicited by work, family responsibilities, finances, traffic, deadlines, not getting enough sleep etc… the list goes on and on (you are probably feeling a little bit of this stress right now, just after reading that short list).

For the most part, exercise reduces stress, increases the amount of endorphins your body produces, helps you lose weight, increase focus & improves sleep just to name a few.  However, there is always a balance to be found.  It depends on who you are, how you live and what you deem priority in life.  For example, for some people it’s like pulling teeth just to get them to commit to going for a walk 20 minutes a day 3 days a week… then for others it’s more is always better.  Pain is the name of the game right?  “No pain, no gain”… well to some degree this is true, but in general not to the extreme that we American’s are used to.

First and foremost it is important to find your balance and as far as exercise is concerned.  Here are a couple of notes from Dr. Jeff Spencer, named Sports Chiropractor of the Year, author, olympian and recent author of the article “Fail To Do This After a Workout and Your Whole Effort is Wasted” on 

  • Should have quick and full recovery after each workout – After a workout you should rebound quickly from the effort and feel almost back to normal within 30-minutes. A prolonged rebound is a sign the workout was too difficult and you need to go easy for a couple of days.
  • Ideal to feel better at end of workout than the beginning – Successful workouts will leave you feeling better at the end of your workout than the beginning. This is a sign of well-trained body.
  • Slight soreness on occasion is OK, but regular soreness isn’t – Slight muscle soreness is normal after starting to exercise, when new exercises are implemented into your workouts or when an increase in exercise intensity is done.
  • Should be able to raise heart rate – A cardinal sign of having the right training balance of effort to recovery is when your heart rate moves up and down nicely during a workout. If your heart rate fails to elevate during a workout you’re over-trained from training too hard too often, and you need time off.
    • Also keep an eye on your resting heart rate first thing in the morning.  If your heart rate is elevated while you are still lying in bed, then you are likely not recovery properly &/or overtrained.  Take this as another indicator that you’ve pushed your threshold and just back off.
  • Heart rate should drop immediately when workout completed – Fitness buffs having ideal intensity variety in their workouts have heart rates that drop down to slightly above normal within 5-minutes of finishing a workout then drop back to normal levels shortly thereafter.
  • Perspiration should stop shortly after training complete– As a rule sweating associated with workouts should stop within a few minutes after exercise is stopped when workout intensity and overall fitness is within ideal range.  If sweating continues 20-30 minutes after exercise it is the sign the workout was too hard, and requires a few easy days to recover from.  If you feel sore then put two or more easy day’s into your program to let your body catch up with itself (Spencer, 2011).

As for the rest of your life, it’s up to you to start decreasing the amount of stressors in your life.  There are many ways to do this and that could be a much longer post… so stay tuned we’ll get there.  Diet is going to play a big part in your total stress too, in short you are better off eating as clean as possible, lots of vegetables, fruits and good clean proteins.  But for now, get some acupuncture, do some yoga or meditation and get a massage!

There are a number of nutritional supplements that you can add to your regimen in order to better deal with stress (both physical and mental emotional), many of them are referred to as ‘adaptogens’ and I regularly cycle through them.  A quick and short list includes:  Rhodiola, Ashwaghanda, Maca, & Ginseng.  Add to that B-vitamins (complex), Vitamin C (for tissue repair) and a daily multi-vitamin and you should be well on your way.  (If you are currently on a list of a number of other medications please consult your physician before beginning any new supplements, this article is not intended to diagnose or cure & is for informational purposes only).

As an Acupuncturist & Master of OM, chinese herbal formulas can also do wonders to help with stress management and recovery.  In addition to acupuncture treatments, a trained herbalist can put together a mixture of herbs (including some of those listed above) personalized just for you in order to help your body adapt to stressors and strains.

Overtraining & Cortisol Response:

It’s actually an easy thing to do.  Life stressors are always changing and our ability and strength to stay resilient has its own personal ups and downs.  I still struggle with keeping a good balance of how much is just enough in order to get the benefits without the break down.  So what happens to our bodies when we overdo it?  Your body is running on adrenaline all the time, and much like the insulin de-sensitivity that happens with Type II Diabetics, we become a little less sensitive to the constant influx of adrenaline-like substances coursing through our bodies and literally get sick and tired.

Just like we need to exercise, but not too much, we also need Cortisol… just not too much.  It is a necessary hormone and in moderate amounts will regulate glucose, insulin, blood pressure, the immune system and our inflammatory response.  Aptly referred to as the ‘stress hormone’ it is released as a means to improve mental acuity, kickstart your immune system and shuttle glucose to where it may be needed during acute episodes of stress.  However, our bodies were never meant to experience stress all the time, especially at the levels we are accustomed to today.  The fallout of having elevated levels of cortisol in the bloodstream for prolonged periods of time makes up a very long list of maladies including (and not limited to):

  • a decrease in muscle tissue and bone
  • decreased immunity
  • increased blood pressure and likelihood of experiencing a cardiovascular accident
  • blood sugar imbalances
  • lowered thyroid function and
  • an increase in abdominal fat (that stubborn muffin top that never seems to disappear no matter what you do).

Just like Goldilocks, you’ve got to find the right fit for you in order to achieve the maximal benefits from your exercise whether you are looking to gain size, increase strength and muscle, lose fat or just to reduce your stress level.

So… go on, get out there and enjoy your training regimen, switch it up and cycle your TTL’s & don’t forget how important your recovery time is.  Get the benefits that exercise was meant to give you without the frustrations of never getting it right!  Have fun and I’ll see you in the gym… or at the office.

Till next time ~ be well,

Erin (soon to be LAc., MAOM)


High Intensity Interval Training. (2011). Wikipedia. Retrieved May 14, 2011, from

Scott, E. (2008, February 5). Cortisol and stress: how to stay healthy. Stress Management, Retrieved from

Spencer, J. (2011, May 13). Fail to do this after a workout and your whole effort is wasted., Retrieved from

Thibadeau, C. (2010, December 16). Neural charge training. T-Nation, Retrieved from


Kettlebells & The Skogg System!

March 7, 2011 Leave a comment

on the set...

It’s official! The DVD is complete and it’s shipping out as we speak!  If you are new to my blog and me; I am currently a full-time graduate student at the Oregon College of Oriental Medicine as well as a Kettlebell coach at Skogg Gym in downtown Portland.

Now, add to that list; kettlebell fitness ‘talent’ in the new DVD series by Michael Skogg; former Navy Seal and face of Weider PowerBells:

The Skogg System!

This project has been in the works for some time now and is finally complete and ready to buy.  We’ve gotten it out there via the web; either on…

  • Skogg Gym’s website:  SKOGG Gym
  • Amazon
  • Or if you are in the Portland, OR area at our Gym (10th and Everett)!

Check it out and let me know what you think!  It’s been a crazy past 3 years for me with school and work but good things come to those who work hard and I’ve been workin’ hard!  Here’s a little teaser for you…


Need more proof?  Burn more calories in less time and get the best workout of your life 🙂 Check out this article by ACE Fitness:  Study Reveals Kettlebells Provide Powerful Workout in Short Amount of Time

Also, keep updated on the Skogg System DVD series, the gym and all things Kettlebell here on Sue Skogg’s (Michael’s other half; co-owner of the Skogg gym, and Executive Producer of the DVD) Blog:  Skogg Sytem: Sue’s Journey

Till next time, keep swingin!


Myofascial Meridians, Trigger Points & Mobility

June 2, 2010 Leave a comment

By, aibres @ flickr

I recently have been reading a lot about fascia, stretching, exercise and trigger points… As a side job while I’m in school I’ve taken up personal training at a Kettle-Bell Gym here in Portland and Tigard Oregon. (It’s called Spinach if you want to check it out!) I figure training and athletics are as much a part of my life as Acupuncture and Oriental Medicine will be and why not integrate the two! As a practitioner, what better way to reach out to a certain population of people than to put yourself right in the mix and learn the facets of exercise, diet & nutrition as well as Acupuncture, body work and other training & treating modalities for healthy living.

It’s taught me a lot more about how the body works and has led me to start researching some pretty cool stuff. Lately I’ve been having some shoulder issues, to which I contribute structural misalignment, tense muscles, stress (liver qi stagnation), and sitting in a chair hunched over a notebook most hours of the day; not to mention throwing around heavy kettlebells almost every day. At the same time I’ve been really into this book one of my clients lent me, Stretch To Win by Ann & Chris Frederick. It’s a super awesome book about flexibility assessment and stretching techniques based on the fascial lines and your movement (i.e. the sport you play). As an acupuncturist, we treat the body as a whole system interconnected by meridians or channels, which correspond to different systems in the body, by using needles, moxa (mugwort) and other modalities. Part of this interconnectedness is seen in the way the muscles and the fascia is connected as a whole system, which is what this book is all about… and which led me to another book, Anatomy Trains, that is surely going to be one of my favorites… if I ever find the extra time in my schedule to read it. This book immediately drew me in as on the cover it conveys a body with the myofascial meridians drawn upon it… very similar to the Acupuncture meridians. Though I know I still have so much to learn, I love that these two have so much overlap. As far as I know this system of working with the fascia using manipulations and massage is what we term Structural Integration or Rolfing.  Just today I had an appointment with a Neuromuscular LMT, which was a similar technique.   The most useful treatments (which includes the one I had this morning) incorporate a wide array of different techniques intermixed into one treatment depending on the client, the problem and how the patient responds to different techniques.  What works wonders for one person isn’t necessarily going to help everyone.  If there is one thing I take away from school it’s that there is no one way to do anything, it’s always best to have a whole bag of tricks to draw from.  To me this is what Integrative Medicine is all about, combining a plethora of treatment techniques and working together to do what’s best for the patient.  Every body is different and therefore every treatment shoudl be different.

Back to the point I was getting at about mobility and in particular shoulder mobility.   I just did a bunch of range of motion tests on my own shoulder mobility and failed close to all of them. For whole body health, our bodies need movement and more importantly, movement without pain. Mark’s Daily Apple has started a new series of articles on mobility of certain joints in the body and they are worth checking into.  This is where I found my exercises; he has some great links on there for shoulder exercises and stretches for improving flexibility and mobility.

In addition to my realization that I have crappy alignment in my shoulder, upper back and neck, it helps me to realize that I have to be just as cognizant of my own body health, alignment, flexibility, mobility and strength as I “preach to my clients”.  It also gets me to research more treatment protocols from all angles of health care, using Acupuncture, herbs (ointments & plasters), massage etc. to rehab a somewhat dysfunctional aspect of my body before it becomes a real problem down the road. The good thing is, is there is always something to learn more than you already know and usually we learn the most from our own idiosyncracies; and in this particular case I’m learning a whole lot about muscular interactions, sports injuries, shoulder mobility and stretching just to name a few.

In addition to my new stretching techniques I’m learning from the Stretch to Win system, I’ve also just been introduced to another form of stretching that’s working wonders on my shoulder, traps and neck.  It’s called AIS; Active Isolated Stretching and works on actively lengthening the muscle and releasing the fascial tissues.

Well enough out of me… until next time…  stay limber, be mobile, pain-free and well!


“So Easy A Caveman Can Do It?”

February 26, 2010 Leave a comment

By, Bhimbetka on

The theme of the week seems to be cholesterol; good fats and bad fats; eating a healthy diet and living a healthy life-style.  But what does that mean?  It could mean a number of things to different people.  According to the American Heart Association we should decrease the amount of Saturated Fats in our diet, eat whole grains and maintain a low-fat regimen.  Then, there’s the other perspective… decrease grains all together, increase your fat intake (good fats – no trans, hydrogenated etc.) and maintain a moderate protein intake complete with wild-caught fish, grass-fed beef and wild-game. 

So which is the “right” one… well, I’ll let you choose for yourself, but hopefully I will get you thinking and give you a little information to do the right thing. 

It’s simple, if you didn’t have the daily conveniences of grocery stores, pre-packaged meals, microwaves & refrigerators, what would you eat?  Yes, our world would look a whole lot different than it does today.  Just think how much you rely on the grocery store to supply you with what you assume to be humanely harvested, healthy food choices… yes, ignorance is bliss… but is it?  I’m guessing that if we didn’t have somebody packaging our food up in pretty boxes, claiming “natural”, “heart healthy”, & “fresh”, half of us would starve and the other half would go, well crazy!  If we didn’t have these pretty boxes and shopping carts, we would have to supply for ourselves… just like the hunter, gatherer’s that are our ancestors.  Farming, hunting and seed, fruit and nut gathering were a daily routine to sustain a healthy diet.  There were no trans-fats, hydrogenated oils, highly processed, or super sugary foods in our diets… so whatever happened to these real, whole foods?  Well, it seems to me, we got sugar happy and lazy and with it; we got heart disease and obesity!

I just went to a little seminar with Nora Gedgaudas, author of Primal Body – Primal Mind (Empower Your Total Health the Way Evolution Intended & Didn’t).  She gave a nice presentation on good fats and bad fats in the diet and what nature intended for us and what it didn’t.  She made a good analogy with the following experiment:  “Put a block of butter outside in the yard, next to a tub of margarine and see which gets eaten first”.  She then went on to say how a client of hers went ahead and tried this, and you know what happened, the butter was gone in under an hour and the margarine, remained untouched for somewhere near a month!  Interesting isn’t it, that even scavenging animals that pick at the trash won’t even touch something so overly processed and preserved, yet we lather it on our food everyday by the bucket-load.  Another good point she made was that the rise of Heart Disease almost exactly correlates to the addition and increase of vegetable oils into the diet.  These along with all the hydrogenation, processing and sugar-coating could just be the deadly killers we’ve been trying to ignore all along. 

Anyway, the big point here is that our bodies rely on good fats from the diet.  By cutting out fats in the diet and maintaining a low-fat diet regiment, we send a signal to the hypothalamus that tells our bodies we are starving… in turn, the body starts storing fat every chance it gets to survive (it’s an instinctual mechanism).  By increasing the glucose intake (carbohydrates from simple sugars etc.) in the diet we essentially throw more fuel on the fire, propogating more of our calories to be stored as fat in the body.  Cholesterol is a necessary part of our bodies and is essential in neurological processes and all basic cellular function.  The cells in our body are essentially made up of fats, that’s what keeps them together & functioning properly.  In addition a high amount of blood cholesterol, should be used as an indicator that there is something else going on in the body.  Western drugs (statins) are good at removing the cholesterol, and lowering your blood levels on paper, but what does that mean?  Basically, by doing so, you take away the fire-fighters @ the scene of the crime and let the fire run rampant… the downside is, that the fire in this case is silent and will subsequently keep burning until it hits the pilot light and the whole place blows up. 

Enter Chinese herbs, Acupuncture, Qi-Gong or some form of Meditation, diet and lifestyle!  All together, these modalities can work wonders and support the natural processes of the body, lower blood pressure, decrease inflammation, decrease body weight and therefore; body mass index. 

So, just to add the convenience of this topic, I went on the computer this evening to order myself some more Krill Oil from Dr. and the first article on his home page read:  Saturated Fat is NOT the Cause of Heart Disease… coincidence?  I think not! 

I could keep going on and on about the benefits of good fats in the body and why they should be a major part of our diet, but you have to remember that everything in moderation is a key component as well as the way in which foods are harvested and processed (but hopefully not).   Make sure you read the labels, eat as many whole foods as you can; meaning vegetables, fruits and healthy proteins.  No matter what diet you decide to eat, make sure you always buy “wild” salmon & “grass-fed” beef.  Try to eat local and organic, sustainable foods; farmer’s markets are a great source and alternative to store-packaged goods.  For more information on the “Primal Living”, check out Nora’s website and her awesome book:

Since I mentioned it, this brings me to a good point!  I am currently also a trainer/coach at Elite Kettle-Bell Gym in Tigard OR, as well as Spinach in Portland, OR and it has been one of the best things I could have brought into my life.  As you may know I used to be a competitive Freestyle skier back in the day, and love athletic ventures of all kinds.  Kettlebells have definitely made it to the top of my list as far as awesome workouts that get great results without a lot of time and if you are in the Portland/Tigard, OR area, I highly recommend you check it out!  It’s great for all people of ALL athletic abilities, it’s fun and there is always a great group of people with smiling faces around!  The new gym in downtown is amazing, they just opened it up and classes are running Monday through Saturday pretty much all day.  You can check out the schedule on Elite Kettlebell Gym’s website (the link is above) for more information.   Plus it is a great addition to “Primal Living” and any kind of exercise regimen in that case!

Another good source of information on “eating primal” as well as “living primal” is Mark Sisson’s Webpage and Blog:

  • Mark’s Daily Apple – He’s got easy to access information on diet, nutrition exercise and all sorts of primal living details!  Check it out!

Well, that’s enough out of me, I hope you read, listen and link to these sites! 

Happy living and be well,



Gedgaudas, N. (2009). Primal body-primal mind: empower your total health the way evolution intended (…and didn. Portland OR: Primal Body – Primal Mind Publishing.

Mercola, . (2010, February 25). Saturated fat is not the cause of heart disease. Retrieved from

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